(CNN)It was approaching midnight on June 30, 2020, when news broke that Beijing had promulgated a national security law in Hong Kong, effective immediately.

Since China’s rubber-stamp parliament revealed its plans for such legislation the month before, Hong Kongers had been nervously awaiting the details of a law that would reshape their legal, political and media landscape.Now, the full text was here — and it was broader, vaguer and gave Beijing more power than many expected.The bill was drafted almost entirely in closed-door meetings in Beijing that even Hong Kong’s leader, Carrie Lam, was not a part of. It came after months of anti-government, pro-democracy protests that infuriated the Chinese leadership, who saw it as an open challenge to their national sovereignty.The result was a law that criminalized acts of secession, subversion, terrorism and collusion with foreign forces to endanger national security — with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment for all four. China has passed a controversial national security law in Hong Kong. Here's what you need to knowChina has passed a controversial national security law in Hong Kong. Here's what you need to knowChina has passed a controversial national security law in Hong Kong. Here's what you need to knowRead MoreImmediately, people voiced alarm that the loosely worded law could be used to stifle any type of dissent.Chinese and Hong Kong leaders assured the public the law would target a minority of individuals, and not diminish freedoms in the semi-autonomous city. One year on, while some have welcomed the law for restoring stability after the violence and political unrest of 2019, others feel their worst fears have been confirmed. Crackdown measures that would have been previously unthinkable have arrived at a dizzying speed, with 117 people arrested under the security law and 64 charged as of June 27. Once an open international hub with a freewheeling press, rich protest culture and limited democracy, Hong Kong is looking increasingly like other Chinese cities under Beijing’s tight grip, subject to Chinese laws and censorship.A newspaper has been closed down, public protest appears to be banned, and nearly all of the city’s leading pro-democracy figures, including activists and politicians, have either been jailed or forced into exile. Tens of thousands of citizens are emigrating to democratic countries such as the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, which have offered safe harbor from the law. Even schools, universities, libraries, movies and internet access have been impacted.In just one year, the city has been transformed, leaving many residents stunned and grieving. Here’s a look at how the change unfolded.The 2019 protestsFacing pressure from China, Hong Kong authorities have tried to pass a national security law before, most notably in 2003. They backed down then after hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets, arguing that such a law would give the Hong Kong government similar powers to suppress dissent that exist in mainland China.Fears of Chinese encroachment on the city’s freedoms drove another round of mass protests in 2019, this time sparked by a bill that would have allowed extradition to China.That unrest evolved into a massive pro-democracy, anti-government movement which at times grew violent. The city legislature was stormed, a university campus was held under siege for days, a man was set on fire and another shot and critically injured by police.

117 people have been arrested and 64 charged under the national security law.Hong Kong police, as of June 27, 2021

All that was too much for the Chinese government, which until then had left the crisis for local authorities to handle.When the coronavirus pandemic put a pause on mass gatherings, Beijing swiftly used a back door in Hong Kong’s mini-constitution to bypass the city’s independent legal system and pass the controversial law. Even before the law passed, a chilling effect could be seen throughout the city, with political and activist groups disbanding and many citizens hastily deleting social media posts and accounts prior to June 30.The crackdown beginsHong Kong awoke on July 1, the anniversary of the city’s handover from British rule to China, to the new reality of the national security law.Hundreds turned out to protest, clashing with riot police who fired tear gas and rubber bullets. Police made their first arrests under the national security law that day — and haven’t stopped since. In the first month of the law, schools were ordered to remove textbooks that could violate the law; authorities set up a national security office, allowing mainland Chinese agents to operate in the city for the first time; student activists were arrested for social media posts; and pro-democracy candidates were barred from standing in legislative elections on national security grounds. Crowds protest against the national security law in Hong Kong on July 1, 2020.Crowds protest against the national security law in Hong Kong on July 1, 2020.Crowds protest against the national security law in Hong Kong on July 1, 2020.The changes drew immediate backlash from the global community. The United States revoked Hong Kong’s special trade status, instead implementing the same restrictions that are in place with China. Numerous countries suspended their extradition treaties with Hong Kong, including the UK, US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany and more.In August, more than 200 police officers raided the headquarters of Apple Daily, a popular pro-democracy, anti-Beijing tabloid. They arrested top executives, including the paper’s owner, media tycoon Jimmy Lai; later that day, police arrested a prominent 23-year-old pro-democracy politician under the security law.Hong Kong was once a safe haven from China. Now activists are fleeing the city by boat to TaiwanHong Kong was once a safe haven from China. Now activists are fleeing the city by boat to TaiwanHong Kong was once a safe haven from China. Now activists are fleeing the city by boat to TaiwanBy then, many activists and former lawmakers had already begun fleeing abroad and applying for asylum. In August, 12 Hong Kong residents — including a 16-year-old — were arrested for attempting to reach Taiwan by boat, and detained in the mainland for months without access to lawyers. Several have since been released back to Hong Kong, where at least one was charged under the security law.One of the biggest blows was in November, when Beijing granted Hong Kong authorities the power to expel elected lawmakers for not being “loyal,” or refusing to acknowledge Beijing’s sovereignty. Four lawmakers were immediately expelled — prompting all the remaining elected pro-democracy lawmakers to resign in protest.To many, this marked the end of Hong Kong’s organized political opposition, with few avenues left to voice their dissent. That feeling only strengthened in December when three leading pro-democracy activists — including Joshua Wong, who had been the face of the 2014 protests — were sentenced to prison for organizing a protest police refused to authorize. ‘All rights are not absolute’If there was any hope a new year would bring an end to the crackdown, it was soon dismissed. On January 6, 2021, at least 53 former lawmakers and opposition activists were arrested for “subverting state power.” They had taken part in an unofficial primary election the previous summer, designed to field the strongest pro-democracy candidates in a legislative election that, in the end, never took place, ostensibly due to coronavirus.In February, authorities ordered schools, including kindergartens, to implement national security into their curriculum across a range of studies, from history to biology and music. In a circular to schools, the city’s Education Bureau said that “as far as national security is concerned, there is no room for debate or compromise.” The Chinese central government also continued to rejig Hong Kong’s electoral framework, passing a law in March that changed the make-up of the city parliament to be dominated by government-appointed or influenced seats. Even if pro-democracy candidates could be elected — now much harder with a new committee to vet candidates — they’d be far outnumbered.

500 police officers raided Apple Daily for a second time, seizing journalists’ materials and arresting the paper’s directors.

As the one-year anniversary of the law loomed — along with the all-important landmark of 100 years of the Chinese Communist Party on July 1 — there was one remaining figure from the pro-democracy movement still at large: the Apple Daily newspaper.In June 17, 500 police officers raided its newsroom for a second time, seizing journalists’ materials and arresting the paper’s directors. National security police then froze the company’s assets. Less than a week later, the newspaper announced it would shut down and cease all digital operations due to the untenable environment. A former journalist at the paper tried to leave Hong Kong on June 27, only to be arrested at the airport under the security law.On Friday, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian denied the raid had been an attack to press freedom, calling it a “just move” done in “strict accordance with the law.”Already, the knock-on effects are palpable; Stand News, another pro-democracy outlet, announced shortly after the Apple Daily shutdown that most of its board directors had resigned, and that it would remove op-eds from its website unless writers give their consent to leave them online.Hong Kong's biggest pro-democracy newspaper closes as Beijing tightens its gripHong Kong's biggest pro-democracy newspaper closes as Beijing tightens its gripHong Kong's biggest pro-democracy newspaper closes as Beijing tightens its gripCensorship fears have also proved true on other platforms. Websites have been blocked on national security grounds, and the film censorship guidelines revised to abide by the law. The annual book fair, to be held this year in July, warned that the police would be called if any exhibits or materials were found to violate the security law. Through it all, as authorities have detained journalists and activists, unseated opposition lawmakers, and arrested those who still dared protest, they have insisted that the security law does not diminish any civil or social liberties.”The objective is to maintain long-term stability and prosperity in Hong Kong,” said Carrie Lam, the city’s leader, several days after the Apple Daily raid. “The enforcement of the National Security Law and its implementation is to maintain national security.”The law acknowledges that human rights have to be “respected and protected,” she said — then added, “but all these rights are not absolute.”A woman reacts to pepper spray as police were clearing protesters in Hong Kong on Wednesday, July 1.A woman reacts to pepper spray as police were clearing protesters in Hong Kong on Wednesday, July 1. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA woman reacts to pepper spray as police were clearing protesters in Hong Kong on Wednesday, July 1.Hide Caption 1 of 26Protesters chant slogans during a rally on July 1. The gesture demands the government to meet their "five demands, not one less."Protesters chant slogans during a rally on July 1. The gesture demands the government to meet their "five demands, not one less." Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongProtesters chant slogans during a rally on July 1. The gesture demands the government to meet their “five demands, not one less.”Hide Caption 2 of 26A protester is detained by police after being pepper sprayed during a protest at Causeway Bay before the annual handover march in Hong Kong, Wednesday, July 1. A protester is detained by police after being pepper sprayed during a protest at Causeway Bay before the annual handover march in Hong Kong, Wednesday, July 1. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA protester is detained by police after being pepper sprayed during a protest at Causeway Bay before the annual handover march in Hong Kong, Wednesday, July 1. Hide Caption 3 of 26A police officer raises his pepper spray gun as he detains a man during a march on July 1.A police officer raises his pepper spray gun as he detains a man during a march on July 1. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA police officer raises his pepper spray gun as he detains a man during a march on July 1.Hide Caption 4 of 26Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam makes a toast with former chief executives Tung Chee-hwa, center, and Leung Chun-ying following a flag-raising ceremony on July 1. July 1 is the 23rd anniversary of Hong Kong's handover from British rule to China.Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam makes a toast with former chief executives Tung Chee-hwa, center, and Leung Chun-ying following a flag-raising ceremony on July 1. July 1 is the 23rd anniversary of Hong Kong's handover from British rule to China. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongHong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam makes a toast with former chief executives Tung Chee-hwa, center, and Leung Chun-ying following a flag-raising ceremony on July 1. July 1 is the 23rd anniversary of Hong Kong’s handover from British rule to China.Hide Caption 5 of 26Police officers charge up shopping-mall escalators during demonstrations on July 1.Police officers charge up shopping-mall escalators during demonstrations on July 1. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongPolice officers charge up shopping-mall escalators during demonstrations on July 1.Hide Caption 6 of 26People wave flags and shout slogans inside a Hong Kong shopping mall on June 15.People wave flags and shout slogans inside a Hong Kong shopping mall on June 15. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongPeople wave flags and shout slogans inside a Hong Kong shopping mall on June 15.Hide Caption 7 of 26Pro-democracy activists leave flowers outside a shopping mall where a man fell to his death last year after hanging a protest banner.Pro-democracy activists leave flowers outside a shopping mall where a man fell to his death last year after hanging a protest banner. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongPro-democracy activists leave flowers outside a shopping mall where a man fell to his death last year after hanging a protest banner.Hide Caption 8 of 26A pro-democracy protester shouts at police during a rally on June 12.A pro-democracy protester shouts at police during a rally on June 12. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA pro-democracy protester shouts at police during a rally on June 12.Hide Caption 9 of 26Activists defy a police ban to participate in a rally in Victoria Park on June 4. <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/04/asia/hong-kong-tiananmen-square-vigil-intl-hnk/index.html" target="_blank">The rally,</a> which has been held every year since the 1989 crackdown on pro-democracy protesters in China, had been banned over coronavirus fears. Many viewed the ban as political in a city where infections were down to a handful per month.Activists defy a police ban to participate in a rally in Victoria Park on June 4. <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/04/asia/hong-kong-tiananmen-square-vigil-intl-hnk/index.html" target="_blank">The rally,</a> which has been held every year since the 1989 crackdown on pro-democracy protesters in China, had been banned over coronavirus fears. Many viewed the ban as political in a city where infections were down to a handful per month. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongActivists defy a police ban to participate in a rally in Victoria Park on June 4. The rally, which has been held every year since the 1989 crackdown on pro-democracy protesters in China, had been banned over coronavirus fears. Many viewed the ban as political in a city where infections were down to a handful per month.Hide Caption 10 of 26A man holds up the iconic Tiananmen Square <a href="https://www.cnn.com/interactive/2019/05/world/tiananmen-square-tank-man-cnnphotos/" target="_blank">"Tank Man" photo</a> during the Victoria Park rally.A man holds up the iconic Tiananmen Square <a href="https://www.cnn.com/interactive/2019/05/world/tiananmen-square-tank-man-cnnphotos/" target="_blank">"Tank Man" photo</a> during the Victoria Park rally. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA man holds up the iconic Tiananmen Square “Tank Man” photo during the Victoria Park rally.Hide Caption 11 of 26From left, Joshua Wong, Nathan Law and Agnes Chow — members of the pro-democracy political group Demosisto — hold a news conference on May 30. A month later, Demosisto and several other political and activist groups formally disbanded, fearing they could be targeted under the new law.From left, Joshua Wong, Nathan Law and Agnes Chow — members of the pro-democracy political group Demosisto — hold a news conference on May 30. A month later, Demosisto and several other political and activist groups formally disbanded, fearing they could be targeted under the new law. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongFrom left, Joshua Wong, Nathan Law and Agnes Chow — members of the pro-democracy political group Demosisto — hold a news conference on May 30. A month later, Demosisto and several other political and activist groups formally disbanded, fearing they could be targeted under the new law.Hide Caption 12 of 26A man at a diner watches Chinese President Xi Jinping on May 28 as Chinese lawmakers approved a proposal for the new security law.A man at a diner watches Chinese President Xi Jinping on May 28 as Chinese lawmakers approved a proposal for the new security law. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA man at a diner watches Chinese President Xi Jinping on May 28 as Chinese lawmakers approved a proposal for the new security law.Hide Caption 13 of 26Xi votes on the proposal to draft a security law.Xi votes on the proposal to draft a security law. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongXi votes on the proposal to draft a security law.Hide Caption 14 of 26Pro-democracy protesters scuffle with police on May 27.Pro-democracy protesters scuffle with police on May 27. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongPro-democracy protesters scuffle with police on May 27.Hide Caption 15 of 26A young man uses the "five demands, not one less" gesture during a protest on May 27.A young man uses the "five demands, not one less" gesture during a protest on May 27. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA young man uses the “five demands, not one less” gesture during a protest on May 27.Hide Caption 16 of 26Police try to deter pro-democracy protesters from blocking roads in the Mong Kok district  on May 27.Police try to deter pro-democracy protesters from blocking roads in the Mong Kok district  on May 27. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongPolice try to deter pro-democracy protesters from blocking roads in the Mong Kok district on May 27.Hide Caption 17 of 26A pro-democracy protester is detained by police on May 24.A pro-democracy protester is detained by police on May 24. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA pro-democracy protester is detained by police on May 24.Hide Caption 18 of 26Tear gas is seen in the background as police try to disperse protesters on May 24.Tear gas is seen in the background as police try to disperse protesters on May 24. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongTear gas is seen in the background as police try to disperse protesters on May 24.Hide Caption 19 of 26A police officer fires on protesters in Causeway Bay on May 24.A police officer fires on protesters in Causeway Bay on May 24. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA police officer fires on protesters in Causeway Bay on May 24.Hide Caption 20 of 26A woman reacts to tear gas on May 24.A woman reacts to tear gas on May 24. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongA woman reacts to tear gas on May 24.Hide Caption 21 of 26Pro-China lawmakers attend a news conference in Hong Kong on May 22.Pro-China lawmakers attend a news conference in Hong Kong on May 22. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongPro-China lawmakers attend a news conference in Hong Kong on May 22.Hide Caption 22 of 26Pro-democracy lawmaker Eddie Chu Hoi-dick is removed by security during a scuffle with pro-Beijing lawmakers at the Legislative Council in Hong Kong on May 22.Pro-democracy lawmaker Eddie Chu Hoi-dick is removed by security during a scuffle with pro-Beijing lawmakers at the Legislative Council in Hong Kong on May 22. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongPro-democracy lawmaker Eddie Chu Hoi-dick is removed by security during a scuffle with pro-Beijing lawmakers at the Legislative Council in Hong Kong on May 22.Hide Caption 23 of 26Delegates applaud as Chinese President Xi Jinping arrives for the opening session of China's National People's Congress on May 22.Delegates applaud as Chinese President Xi Jinping arrives for the opening session of China's National People's Congress on May 22. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongDelegates applaud as Chinese President Xi Jinping arrives for the opening session of China’s National People’s Congress on May 22.Hide Caption 24 of 26Pro-democracy and pro-Beijing lawmakers scuffle at the House Committee's election of chairpersons on May 18.Pro-democracy and pro-Beijing lawmakers scuffle at the House Committee's election of chairpersons on May 18. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongPro-democracy and pro-Beijing lawmakers scuffle at the House Committee’s election of chairpersons on May 18.Hide Caption 25 of 26Lam Cheuk-ting, a pro-democracy lawmaker, tosses papers into the air in protest on May 18.Lam Cheuk-ting, a pro-democracy lawmaker, tosses papers into the air in protest on May 18. Photos: New security law sparks protests in Hong KongLam Cheuk-ting, a pro-democracy lawmaker, tosses papers into the air in protest on May 18.Hide Caption 26 of 2602 hong kong unrest 070108 hong kong unrest 070103 hong kong protest 070103 hong kong unrest 070107 hong kong unrest 070109 hong kong unrest 070102 hong kong unrest 061501 hong kong unrest 061501 hong kong unrest 061201 hong kong unrest 060402 hong kong unrest 0604hong kong Joshua Wong Nathan Law Agnes Chow FILE07 hong kong unrest 0528 RESTRICTED02 NPC 0528 Xi Jinping10 hong kong unrest 052708 hong kong unrest 052711 hong kong unrest 052706 week in photos 052904 hong kong political unrest 0524 RESTRICTED05 hong kong unrest 0524 RESTRICTED02 hong kong unrest 052401 hong kong unrest 052207 Hong Kong political unrest 0522NPC 052202 hong kong lawmakers scuffle 051805 hong kong lawmakers scuffle 0518Last week, Security Secretary John Lee, a former police officer who made the decision to freeze Apple Daily’s assets, was promoted to chief secretary — the second-highest position in Hong Kong. The city’s police chief was also promoted to take Lee’s place as new security secretary.When asked why two of the city’s most important positions were both given to officials with policing backgrounds, Lam dismissed concerns, saying it was “all about meritocracy.”Pro-Beijing legislator Alice Mak was more blunt. “If (Hong Kong is) a police state, why not?” she said last Friday, according to public broadcaster RTHK. “I don’t think there’s any problem with a police state.”An uncertain futureOne year on, Hong Kong looks very different from the raucous, rebellious city of protest it had been for decades. Since the city’s handover, it has had a history of mass protests, sometimes stretching into hundreds of thousands of participants — and in 2019, reaching two million, according to organizers. These mass demonstrations are now nowhere to be seen; there are occasionally small flash protests, but these are quickly shut down and the organizers punished.During the 2014 protests known as the Umbrella Revolution, activists and pro-democracy leaders had been hopeful that real change was possible, though the movement ultimately failed to bring about any electoral reform.There is little of that hope now. With Hong Kong increasingly being brought under Chinese rule, many local residents are looking overseas — tens of thousands are expected to relocate to Britain, under a new scheme implemented by the UK government for holders of British National (Overseas) passports. Both Australia and Canada have also announced new pathways for Hong Kong citizens to gain permanent residency. Many families have already left, citing fear for Hong Kong’s future and a desire for their children to grow up in a free and democratic society.

On January 6, 2021, at least 53 former lawmakers and opposition activists were arrested for “subverting state power.”

The threat of arrests and asset freezes has also thrown into question Hong Kong’s viability as a base for international businesses. Not all industries or sectors will be affected, experts have said, and business continues as usual for many companies; some residents feel the law has made the city safer, in contrast to the violent street clashes of 2019.Still, a sense of apprehension persists, and some firms have reduced their presence in Hong Kong due to the political upheaval.”It’s not just the closure of Apple Daily,” said Tara Joseph, president of the American Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong. “It’s the new normal, and the change that Hong Kong is going through from its era as a post-British colony to an era where it is, more and more, part and parcel of China.”Others have also decided to stay, even at the risk of arrest or imprisonment. And many continue to resist in whatever ways they can, throwing their support behind the crumbling bastions of free press and political dissent.Free copies of the final Apple Daily issue being handed out to supporters through the gates in Hong Kong on July 23.Free copies of the final Apple Daily issue being handed out to supporters through the gates in Hong Kong on July 23.Free copies of the final Apple Daily issue being handed out to supporters through the gates in Hong Kong on July 23.Last Wednesday, people began lining up behind newsstands by midnight to buy the final Thursday issue of Apple Daily before its closure, with lines stretching down the street and around the block. A crowd gathered outside the newspaper’s headquarters in a show of solidarity, holding placards and flowers. Many waved flashlights and tied yellow ribbons — the color of the pro-democracy movement — to the building’s gates. When journalists came out to thank their supporters and hand out free copies of the last issue, they were met with cheers and applause. “Thank you, Hong Kongers,” the group of journalists shouted in unison, before taking a deep bow and waving farewell. “Thank you, Apple Daily people — ga yau,” the crowd shouted back, using a Cantonese phrase that has been a rallying cry throughout the protests. It translates to “add oil,” and it means: keep going, work hard, and above all else, persevere.

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