(CNN)Cars stranded in streets turned to rivers. Bus passengers rescued by raft. Train stations submerged, sparking travel chaos.

The now-familiar scenes of a city inundated by floods played out in London over the weekend, when heavy rainfall put parts of the UK capital underwater.When two London hospitals turned non-emergency patients away after getting flooded over the weekend, it was a brutal reminder that even some of the world’s richest cities are dangerously unprepared for the kind of extreme weather that is becoming more common and more severe because of climate change.Climate and infrastructure experts have been warning for years that London, like many other large cities, isn’t ready for climate change, with large parts of the city built on a flood plain and a Victorian drainage system that is unable to withstand this kind of intense rain.A pedestrian crosses through deep water on a flooded road in London on July 25, 2021.A pedestrian crosses through deep water on a flooded road in London on July 25, 2021.A pedestrian crosses through deep water on a flooded road in London on July 25, 2021.”It’s deeply concerning that we’re seeing hospital emergency departments having to close because they flooded, something certainly needs to be done to make sure that critical infrastructure is not at risk,” said Liz Stephens, associate professor at the department of geography and environmental science at the University of Reading. Read MoreAccording to the Greater London Authority, 17% of London is facing either high or medium risk of flooding, with more than 1 million Londoners live in a flood plain. The city has built a giant flood defense system on the river Thames to protect itself from tidal flooding, but the barriers are of little help when it comes to flash flooding caused by sudden heavy rainfall — the sort that is becoming more common because of rising temperatures.Images from Sunday showed Londoners taken by surprise, wandering through flooded streets. Some even attempting to drive away through the rising water, which officials warn against because of the high likelihood for automobiles to be swept away, or for the drivers to become trapped. The London Fire Brigade said Monday it took over 1,000 emergency calls related to the flooding with crews rescuing people from cars and helping them flee their homes. While these images of people not taking the risk seriously are concerning, Stephens said individuals were hardly to blame here.'Once in a thousand years' rains devastated central China, but there is little talk of climate change'Once in a thousand years' rains devastated central China, but there is little talk of climate change'Once in a thousand years' rains devastated central China, but there is little talk of climate change“Our ability to map the risk of surface water flooding is not particularly good,” Stephens said. He noted UK’s surface water flood risk maps have not been improved significantly since 2013, even though more precise technology is available and despite the fact that numerous reports have been published that emphasize the increasing risk. On top of that, the way flood risk is monitored and managed in the UK is extremely complicated, with different bodies responsible for different parts of the effort and no single body in charge. The Met Office, the UK’s national weather service, issued weather warnings for heavy rainfall and thunderstorms on Sunday, but Stephens said these may not be immediately understood by people. “I think there was an amber warning which tells you that that there could well be severe impacts, but the amber warning covered a very large area of southeast England,” said Stephens. “So really as an individual, what would you do with that kind of information. If you don’t know that your property is at risk of flooding, and you’ve got some very broad scale flood warning, or not even a flood warning, a warning of intense rainfall, then I don’t think we can be surprised if people are unprepared for it,” she said. Two brothers embrace Monday, July 19, in front of their parents' home, which was destroyed by flooding in Altenahr, Germany.Two brothers embrace Monday, July 19, in front of their parents' home, which was destroyed by flooding in Altenahr, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeTwo brothers embrace Monday, July 19, in front of their parents’ home, which was destroyed by flooding in Altenahr, Germany.Hide Caption 1 of 38A damaged road buckles after flooding in Euskirchen, Germany.A damaged road buckles after flooding in Euskirchen, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA damaged road buckles after flooding in Euskirchen, Germany.Hide Caption 2 of 38This aerial photo shows a bridge collapsed over the Ahr River in Germany's Ahrweiler district on Sunday.This aerial photo shows a bridge collapsed over the Ahr River in Germany's Ahrweiler district on Sunday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeThis aerial photo shows a bridge collapsed over the Ahr River in Germany’s Ahrweiler district on Sunday.Hide Caption 3 of 38Damage is seen Sunday in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.Damage is seen Sunday in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeDamage is seen Sunday in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.Hide Caption 4 of 38Homes are damaged in Pepinster, Belgium, on Saturday.Homes are damaged in Pepinster, Belgium, on Saturday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeHomes are damaged in Pepinster, Belgium, on Saturday.Hide Caption 5 of 38A resident stands in floodwaters in Rochefort, Belgium, on Saturday.A resident stands in floodwaters in Rochefort, Belgium, on Saturday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA resident stands in floodwaters in Rochefort, Belgium, on Saturday.Hide Caption 6 of 38Members of the German armed forces search for flood victims in Erftstadt, Germany, on Saturday.Members of the German armed forces search for flood victims in Erftstadt, Germany, on Saturday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeMembers of the German armed forces search for flood victims in Erftstadt, Germany, on Saturday.Hide Caption 7 of 38A resident of Arcen, Netherlands, looks at the rising water of the Meuse River on Saturday.A resident of Arcen, Netherlands, looks at the rising water of the Meuse River on Saturday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA resident of Arcen, Netherlands, looks at the rising water of the Meuse River on Saturday.Hide Caption 8 of 38Water flows over a square in front of a house in Bischofswiesen, Germany.Water flows over a square in front of a house in Bischofswiesen, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeWater flows over a square in front of a house in Bischofswiesen, Germany.Hide Caption 9 of 38A man stands in front of a destroyed house in Schuld, Germany.A man stands in front of a destroyed house in Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man stands in front of a destroyed house in Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 10 of 38A water level gauge shows rising waters in Arcen, Netherlands, on Saturday. Dutch officials ordered the evacuation of 10,000 people in the municipality of Venlo, as the Meuse was rising there faster than expected.A water level gauge shows rising waters in Arcen, Netherlands, on Saturday. Dutch officials ordered the evacuation of 10,000 people in the municipality of Venlo, as the Meuse was rising there faster than expected. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA water level gauge shows rising waters in Arcen, Netherlands, on Saturday. Dutch officials ordered the evacuation of 10,000 people in the municipality of Venlo, as the Meuse was rising there faster than expected.Hide Caption 11 of 38This aerial photo shows flooding in Erftstadt, Germany, on Friday.This aerial photo shows flooding in Erftstadt, Germany, on Friday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeThis aerial photo shows flooding in Erftstadt, Germany, on Friday.Hide Caption 12 of 38A man brushes water and mud out of his flooded house in Ensival, Belgium, on Friday.A man brushes water and mud out of his flooded house in Ensival, Belgium, on Friday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man brushes water and mud out of his flooded house in Ensival, Belgium, on Friday.Hide Caption 13 of 38People collect debris in Bad Muenstereifel, Germany.People collect debris in Bad Muenstereifel, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople collect debris in Bad Muenstereifel, Germany.Hide Caption 14 of 38The Steinbach dam is seen after flooding near Euskirchen, Germany.The Steinbach dam is seen after flooding near Euskirchen, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeThe Steinbach dam is seen after flooding near Euskirchen, Germany.Hide Caption 15 of 38Firefighters walk past a car that was damaged by flooding in Schuld, Germany.Firefighters walk past a car that was damaged by flooding in Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeFirefighters walk past a car that was damaged by flooding in Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 16 of 38People lay sandbags in Roermond, Netherlands, on Friday.People lay sandbags in Roermond, Netherlands, on Friday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople lay sandbags in Roermond, Netherlands, on Friday.Hide Caption 17 of 38A woman sorts through clothing at a shelter in Liege, Belgium, on Friday.A woman sorts through clothing at a shelter in Liege, Belgium, on Friday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA woman sorts through clothing at a shelter in Liege, Belgium, on Friday.Hide Caption 18 of 38A woman walks up the stairs of her damaged house in Ensival, Belgium.A woman walks up the stairs of her damaged house in Ensival, Belgium. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA woman walks up the stairs of her damaged house in Ensival, Belgium.Hide Caption 19 of 38A man walks through a flooded part of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany, on Thursday.A man walks through a flooded part of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany, on Thursday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man walks through a flooded part of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany, on Thursday.Hide Caption 20 of 38A regional train sits in floodwaters at the local station in Kordel, Germany.A regional train sits in floodwaters at the local station in Kordel, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA regional train sits in floodwaters at the local station in Kordel, Germany.Hide Caption 21 of 38People use rafts to evacuate after the Meuse River broke its banks during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium.People use rafts to evacuate after the Meuse River broke its banks during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople use rafts to evacuate after the Meuse River broke its banks during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium.Hide Caption 22 of 38People look at a railway crossing that was destroyed by the flooding in Priorei, Germany.People look at a railway crossing that was destroyed by the flooding in Priorei, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople look at a railway crossing that was destroyed by the flooding in Priorei, Germany.Hide Caption 23 of 38Men walk by damaged homes in Schuld, Germany.Men walk by damaged homes in Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeMen walk by damaged homes in Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 24 of 38A man surveys what remains of his house in Schuld.A man surveys what remains of his house in Schuld. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man surveys what remains of his house in Schuld.Hide Caption 25 of 38Water from the Ahr River flows past a damaged bridge in Schuld.Water from the Ahr River flows past a damaged bridge in Schuld. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeWater from the Ahr River flows past a damaged bridge in Schuld.Hide Caption 26 of 38Evacuees ride a bus in Valkenburg aan de Geul, Netherlands.Evacuees ride a bus in Valkenburg aan de Geul, Netherlands. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeEvacuees ride a bus in Valkenburg aan de Geul, Netherlands.Hide Caption 27 of 38A car floats in the Meuse River during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium, on Thursday.A car floats in the Meuse River during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium, on Thursday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA car floats in the Meuse River during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium, on Thursday.Hide Caption 28 of 38People walk on a damaged road in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.People walk on a damaged road in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople walk on a damaged road in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.Hide Caption 29 of 38A resident uses a bucket to remove water from a house cellar in Hagen, Germany.A resident uses a bucket to remove water from a house cellar in Hagen, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA resident uses a bucket to remove water from a house cellar in Hagen, Germany.Hide Caption 30 of 38A man and woman stand on the stoop of their home as they look at floodwaters in Geulle, Netherlands.A man and woman stand on the stoop of their home as they look at floodwaters in Geulle, Netherlands. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man and woman stand on the stoop of their home as they look at floodwaters in Geulle, Netherlands.Hide Caption 31 of 38Houses are damaged by flooding in Insul, Germany, on Thursday.Houses are damaged by flooding in Insul, Germany, on Thursday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeHouses are damaged by flooding in Insul, Germany, on Thursday.Hide Caption 32 of 38A man steps down a ladder in an attempt to cut his boat loose in the Meuse River in Liege, Belgium.A man steps down a ladder in an attempt to cut his boat loose in the Meuse River in Liege, Belgium. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man steps down a ladder in an attempt to cut his boat loose in the Meuse River in Liege, Belgium.Hide Caption 33 of 38Caravans and campers are partially submerged in Roermond, Netherlands.Caravans and campers are partially submerged in Roermond, Netherlands. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeCaravans and campers are partially submerged in Roermond, Netherlands.Hide Caption 34 of 38A destroyed building is seen in a flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany.A destroyed building is seen in a flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA destroyed building is seen in a flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 35 of 38People walk over floodwaters in Stansstad, Switzerland.People walk over floodwaters in Stansstad, Switzerland. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople walk over floodwaters in Stansstad, Switzerland.Hide Caption 36 of 38Cars are covered by debris in Hagen, Germany.Cars are covered by debris in Hagen, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeCars are covered by debris in Hagen, Germany.Hide Caption 37 of 38A flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany.A flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 38 of 3801 western europe floods 0719 RESTRICTED01b western europe flooding 071802 western europe flooding 0718 03 western europe flooding 0718 11 western europe flooding 0717 BELGIUM10 western europe flooding 0717 GERMANY06 western europe flooding 0717 GERMANY04 western europe flooding 0717 NETHERLANDS08 western europe flooding 0717 GERMANY07 western europe flooding 0717 GERMANY03a western europe flooding 0717 NETHERLANDS02 germany flooding aerial09 western europe flooding 071612 western europe flooding GERMANY11 western europe flooding GERMANY 0716 01 western europe flooding 071610 western europe flooding 071607 western europe flooding08 western europe flooding18 western europe flooding 0715 GERMANY19 western europe flooding 0715 GERMANY20 western europe flooding 0715 BELGIUM02 western europe flooding 071503 western europe flooding 071504 western europe flooding 071505 western europe flooding 071506 western europe flooding 071507 western europe flooding 071508 western europe flooding 071509 western europe flooding 071510 western europe flooding 071501 western europe flooding 071512 western europe flooding 071513 western europe flooding 071514 western europe flooding 071515 western europe flooding 071516 western europe flooding 071517 western europe flooding 0715A report into the impacts of climate change on the UK published last month by the government’s independent climate advisory group, the Climate Change Committee, warned the country was not ready, saying that “adaptation action has failed to keep pace with the worsening reality of climate risk.””The risk is always greater in the urban environment because we’ve got concreted surfaces, but we’re also relying on an old drainage infrastructure in London, we’re talking about Victorian drains,” Stephens said.Images like those coming from London on Sunday are becoming worryingly familiar. Just two weeks ago, devastating floods caused by heavy rains swept across large parts of western Europe, leaving more than 200 people dead and thousands homeless. On the other side of the world, much of China’s central Henan province was left devastated after record rains there last week, killing at least 58, cut off power and forced the relocation of more than 1 million people.And while it is not possible to attribute a single event to climate change, heavy rains and floods are becoming more common. As the Earth’s atmosphere warms, it can hold more moisture, which can lead to unprecedented rainfall. It may be that the total average rainfall in an area doesn’t change, but extremes are amplified, which can mean longer dry periods or more intense storms. When heavy rain hits after prolonged drought, the soils are less able to absorb the water and the rain is more likely to result in flooding. Deadly floods inundated parts of Europe, but the Netherlands avoided fatalities. Here's whyDeadly floods inundated parts of Europe, but the Netherlands avoided fatalities. Here's whyDeadly floods inundated parts of Europe, but the Netherlands avoided fatalities. Here's whyUrban areas are at higher risk of flash flooding because surfaces are covered with concrete, which means the ground cannot absorb any water. According to the European Environmental Agency, Paris, Thessaloniki, Bucharest and Barcelona among the cities with more than three quarters of their surface area “sealed,” meaning they are at higher risk of surface flooding. On top of that, many European cities rely on very old infrastructure, and sewage systems cannot cope with heavier rainfall.”Summer thunderstorms are not a new occurrence, but it is becoming ever clearer that the worsening impacts of flooding from intense rainfall are having devastating effects here in the UK and across Europe,” Jess Neumann, a hydrologist at the University of Reading, said in a comment to Science Media Center. “The severity and frequency of flooding is a stark warning that we are not prepared to deal with climate change.”

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https://www.cnn.com/2021/07/26/europe/london-flooding-infrastructure-climate-intl-cmd/index.html

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