(CNN)As communities devastated by the catastrophic flooding in parts of western Europe start picking up the pieces, they are wondering how it all went so wrong, so fast. After all, Europe has a world-leading warning system that issued regular alerts for days before floods engulfed entire villages.

But at least 200 people still died in Germany and Belgium, in floods that came quickly and forcefully. The Copernicus Emergency Management Service said it sent more than 25 warnings for specific regions of the Rhine and Maas river basins in the days leading up to the flooding, through its European Flood Awareness System (EFAS), well before heavy rains triggered the flash flooding.But few of these early warnings appear to have been passed on to residents early — and clearly — enough, catching them completely off guard. Now questions are being raised over whether the chain of communication from the central European level to regions is working. “There was clearly a serious breakdown in communication, which in some cases has tragically cost people’s lives,” said Jeff Da Costa, a PhD researcher in hydrometeorology at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom.Da Costa focuses on flood warning systems in his research, and his own parents’ home in Luxembourg happened to be hit over the weekend. He said the experiences of the past week show there is often a gap between the weather warnings scientists issue and the actions actually taken by people in charge on the ground.Enormous scale of destruction is revealed as water subsides after historic western Europe floodingEnormous scale of destruction is revealed as water subsides after historic western Europe floodingEnormous scale of destruction is revealed as water subsides after historic western Europe floodingRead MoreSome of the warnings — including in Luxembourg — were only issued after the flood had hit, he said. “People, including my own family, were left to their own devices without any indication on what to do, and giving them no opportunity to prepare themselves,” he said.In many badly affected places, residents were overwhelmed by the speed and ferociousness with which the water came. In Germany, with an election approaching, the issue of flooding has quickly become politicized, and officials are deflecting blame where they can.In the Ahr valley, one particularly badly flooded area in western Germany, senior officials told CNN that warnings were issued ahead of the disaster, but said many residents didn’t take them seriously enough, because they were so unaccustomed to such intense flooding. Some might have attempted to collect provisions and move their valuables to safety, while others thought they would be safe on the second floor of their homes but ended up having to be airlifted off the roof. One of the worst affected towns was Schuld, a picturesque town in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate.Schuld Mayor Helmut Lussi said the flood was utterly unpredictable, pointing to the fact that the town had only experienced to two previous events of intense flooding, on in 1790 and another in 1910. “I think that flood protection systems would not have helped me because you cannot calculate this, what happens to the river Ahr with such masses of water,” he told reporters over the weekend.Da Costa said he can sympathize with the mayor, but that his remarks show a lack of understanding in what good planning and management can do. “His views on the predictability of floods, both on the long-term scale and the immediate scale of being able to provide immediate warnings, are completely wrong, and may go to show one of the difficulties in communicating risk to people or municipal officials who fundamentally don’t understand environmental risk,” he said.”People should also bear in mind that while flood warnings can’t stop a flood, they can help people move themselves, and their possessions, to safety,” he added.A damaged road buckles after a severe rainstorm and flash floods hit in Euskirchen, Germany, on July 18.A damaged road buckles after a severe rainstorm and flash floods hit in Euskirchen, Germany, on July 18. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA damaged road buckles after a severe rainstorm and flash floods hit in Euskirchen, Germany, on July 18.Hide Caption 1 of 37This aerial photo shows a bridge collapsed over the Ahr River in Ahrweiler on July 18.This aerial photo shows a bridge collapsed over the Ahr River in Ahrweiler on July 18. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeThis aerial photo shows a bridge collapsed over the Ahr River in Ahrweiler on July 18.Hide Caption 2 of 37The Kurhaus in Bad Neuenahr is shown missing windows amid flooding on July 18. The Kurhaus in Bad Neuenahr is shown missing windows amid flooding on July 18. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeThe Kurhaus in Bad Neuenahr is shown missing windows amid flooding on July 18. Hide Caption 3 of 37A general view of the destruction following severe flooding and heavy rainfall on July 17, in Pepinster, Belgium. A general view of the destruction following severe flooding and heavy rainfall on July 17, in Pepinster, Belgium. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA general view of the destruction following severe flooding and heavy rainfall on July 17, in Pepinster, Belgium. Hide Caption 4 of 37A resident stands in flood waters as he tries to clean up following heavy rains and floods in the town of Rochefort, Belgium, on July 17.A resident stands in flood waters as he tries to clean up following heavy rains and floods in the town of Rochefort, Belgium, on July 17. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA resident stands in flood waters as he tries to clean up following heavy rains and floods in the town of Rochefort, Belgium, on July 17.Hide Caption 5 of 37Soldiers of the Bundeswehr, the German armed forces, search for flood victims in submerged vehicles on the highway in Erftstadt, western Germany, on July 17.Soldiers of the Bundeswehr, the German armed forces, search for flood victims in submerged vehicles on the highway in Erftstadt, western Germany, on July 17. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeSoldiers of the Bundeswehr, the German armed forces, search for flood victims in submerged vehicles on the highway in Erftstadt, western Germany, on July 17.Hide Caption 6 of 37A resident of Arcen, Netherlands, looks at the rising water of the river Maas.A resident of Arcen, Netherlands, looks at the rising water of the river Maas. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA resident of Arcen, Netherlands, looks at the rising water of the river Maas.Hide Caption 7 of 37Water flows over a square in front of a house in Bischofswiesen, Germany, Saturday, July 17.Water flows over a square in front of a house in Bischofswiesen, Germany, Saturday, July 17. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeWater flows over a square in front of a house in Bischofswiesen, Germany, Saturday, July 17.Hide Caption 8 of 37A man stands in front of a destroyed house after floods caused major damage in Schuld near Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, western Germany, on July 17.A man stands in front of a destroyed house after floods caused major damage in Schuld near Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, western Germany, on July 17. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man stands in front of a destroyed house after floods caused major damage in Schuld near Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, western Germany, on July 17.Hide Caption 9 of 37A water level gauge in Arcen, Netherlands, shows rising waters on July 17. Dutch officials ordered the evacuation of 10,000 people in the municipality of Venlo, as the Maas river was rising there faster than expected.A water level gauge in Arcen, Netherlands, shows rising waters on July 17. Dutch officials ordered the evacuation of 10,000 people in the municipality of Venlo, as the Maas river was rising there faster than expected. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA water level gauge in Arcen, Netherlands, shows rising waters on July 17. Dutch officials ordered the evacuation of 10,000 people in the municipality of Venlo, as the Maas river was rising there faster than expected.Hide Caption 10 of 37This aerial photo shows flooding in Erftstadt, Germany, on July 16.This aerial photo shows flooding in Erftstadt, Germany, on July 16. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeThis aerial photo shows flooding in Erftstadt, Germany, on July 16.Hide Caption 11 of 37A man brushes water and mud out of his flooded house in Ensival, Belgium, on July 16.A man brushes water and mud out of his flooded house in Ensival, Belgium, on July 16. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man brushes water and mud out of his flooded house in Ensival, Belgium, on July 16.Hide Caption 12 of 37People collect debris in the pedestrian area of Bad Muenstereifel, western Germany.People collect debris in the pedestrian area of Bad Muenstereifel, western Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople collect debris in the pedestrian area of Bad Muenstereifel, western Germany.Hide Caption 13 of 37The Steinbach dam near Euskirchen in North Rhine-Westphalia is seen after flooding.The Steinbach dam near Euskirchen in North Rhine-Westphalia is seen after flooding. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeThe Steinbach dam near Euskirchen in North Rhine-Westphalia is seen after flooding.Hide Caption 14 of 37Firefighters walk past a car that was damaged by flooding in Schuld, Germany.Firefighters walk past a car that was damaged by flooding in Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeFirefighters walk past a car that was damaged by flooding in Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 15 of 37People lay sandbags in Roermond, Netherlands, on July 16.People lay sandbags in Roermond, Netherlands, on July 16. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople lay sandbags in Roermond, Netherlands, on July 16.Hide Caption 16 of 37A woman sorts through clothing at a shelter in Liege, Belgium, on Friday.A woman sorts through clothing at a shelter in Liege, Belgium, on Friday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA woman sorts through clothing at a shelter in Liege, Belgium, on Friday.Hide Caption 17 of 37A woman walks up the stairs of her damaged house in Ensival, Belgium.A woman walks up the stairs of her damaged house in Ensival, Belgium. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA woman walks up the stairs of her damaged house in Ensival, Belgium.Hide Caption 18 of 37A man walks through a flooded part of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany, on Thursday.A man walks through a flooded part of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany, on Thursday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man walks through a flooded part of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany, on Thursday.Hide Caption 19 of 37A regional train sits in floodwaters at the local station in Kordel, Germany.A regional train sits in floodwaters at the local station in Kordel, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA regional train sits in floodwaters at the local station in Kordel, Germany.Hide Caption 20 of 37People use rafts to evacuate after the Meuse River broke its banks during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium.People use rafts to evacuate after the Meuse River broke its banks during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople use rafts to evacuate after the Meuse River broke its banks during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium.Hide Caption 21 of 37People look at a railway crossing that was destroyed by the flooding in Priorei, Germany.People look at a railway crossing that was destroyed by the flooding in Priorei, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople look at a railway crossing that was destroyed by the flooding in Priorei, Germany.Hide Caption 22 of 37Men walk by damaged homes in Schuld, Germany.Men walk by damaged homes in Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeMen walk by damaged homes in Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 23 of 37A man surveys what remains of his house in Schuld.A man surveys what remains of his house in Schuld. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man surveys what remains of his house in Schuld.Hide Caption 24 of 37Water from the Ahr River flows past a damaged bridge in Schuld.Water from the Ahr River flows past a damaged bridge in Schuld. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeWater from the Ahr River flows past a damaged bridge in Schuld.Hide Caption 25 of 37Evacuees ride a bus in Valkenburg aan de Geul, Netherlands.Evacuees ride a bus in Valkenburg aan de Geul, Netherlands. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeEvacuees ride a bus in Valkenburg aan de Geul, Netherlands.Hide Caption 26 of 37A car floats in the Meuse River during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium, on Thursday.A car floats in the Meuse River during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium, on Thursday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA car floats in the Meuse River during heavy flooding in Liege, Belgium, on Thursday.Hide Caption 27 of 37People walk on a damaged road in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.People walk on a damaged road in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople walk on a damaged road in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany.Hide Caption 28 of 37A resident uses a bucket to remove water from a house cellar in Hagen, Germany.A resident uses a bucket to remove water from a house cellar in Hagen, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA resident uses a bucket to remove water from a house cellar in Hagen, Germany.Hide Caption 29 of 37A man and woman stand on the stoop of their home as they look at floodwaters in Geulle, Netherlands.A man and woman stand on the stoop of their home as they look at floodwaters in Geulle, Netherlands. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man and woman stand on the stoop of their home as they look at floodwaters in Geulle, Netherlands.Hide Caption 30 of 37Houses are damaged by flooding in Insul, Germany, on Thursday.Houses are damaged by flooding in Insul, Germany, on Thursday. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeHouses are damaged by flooding in Insul, Germany, on Thursday.Hide Caption 31 of 37A man steps down a ladder in an attempt to cut his boat loose in the Meuse River in Liege, Belgium.A man steps down a ladder in an attempt to cut his boat loose in the Meuse River in Liege, Belgium. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA man steps down a ladder in an attempt to cut his boat loose in the Meuse River in Liege, Belgium.Hide Caption 32 of 37Caravans and campers are partially submerged in Roermond, Netherlands.Caravans and campers are partially submerged in Roermond, Netherlands. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeCaravans and campers are partially submerged in Roermond, Netherlands.Hide Caption 33 of 37A destroyed building is seen in a flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany.A destroyed building is seen in a flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA destroyed building is seen in a flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 34 of 37People walk over floodwaters in Stansstad, Switzerland.People walk over floodwaters in Stansstad, Switzerland. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropePeople walk over floodwaters in Stansstad, Switzerland.Hide Caption 35 of 37Cars are covered by debris in Hagen, Germany.Cars are covered by debris in Hagen, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeCars are covered by debris in Hagen, Germany.Hide Caption 36 of 37A flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany.A flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany. Photos: Deadly flooding in western EuropeA flood-affected area of Schuld, Germany.Hide Caption 37 of 3701b western europe flooding 071802 western europe flooding 0718 03 western europe flooding 0718 11 western europe flooding 0717 BELGIUM10 western europe flooding 0717 GERMANY06 western europe flooding 0717 GERMANY04 western europe flooding 0717 NETHERLANDS08 western europe flooding 0717 GERMANY07 western europe flooding 0717 GERMANY03a western europe flooding 0717 NETHERLANDS02 germany flooding aerial09 western europe flooding 071612 western europe flooding GERMANY11 western europe flooding GERMANY 0716 01 western europe flooding 071610 western europe flooding 071607 western europe flooding08 western europe flooding18 western europe flooding 0715 GERMANY19 western europe flooding 0715 GERMANY20 western europe flooding 0715 BELGIUM02 western europe flooding 071503 western europe flooding 071504 western europe flooding 071505 western europe flooding 071506 western europe flooding 071507 western europe flooding 071508 western europe flooding 071509 western europe flooding 071510 western europe flooding 071501 western europe flooding 071512 western europe flooding 071513 western europe flooding 071514 western europe flooding 071515 western europe flooding 071516 western europe flooding 071517 western europe flooding 0715Da Costa said that as extreme weather events become more common because of climate change, towns like Schuld must step up their planning.”If the mayor of Schuld and his town had a plan, clearly communicated to every household and businesses and institution, so that everyone knew what to do in the event of a range of different flooding scenarios, then at least they would be as well prepared as they could be,” he said, adding that if he and other regional leaders had done so, less people may have died. “In times of crisis, everyone needs to know what they are doing. This is why we rehearse fire evacuations from buildings, even when we don’t expect there to be a fire,” he said.CNN has contacted Lussi’s office but did not immediately receive a response. In Belgium, too, communication and organization appear to have been problems. The mayor of Chaudfontaine, a town in the province of Liège, said he received an “orange alert” warning him of rising waters but argued it clearly should have been red earlier.”We could see how the available material wasn’t adapted to the situations that we saw. I’m thinking notably about helicopters that weren’t able to work in the area,” Mayor Daniel Bacquelaine told Belgian broadcaster RTBF. “The boat rescues were absolutely essential and we had to call upon the private sector for boats with sufficient motor power and people to pilot them.”Dutch lessonsIn the Netherlands, just across its borders with Germany’s and Belgium’s flood-devastated areas, the picture is entirely different. The Netherlands too experienced extreme rainfall — albeit not quite as heavy as those in Germany and Belgium — and it hasn’t escaped unscathed. But its towns are not entirely submerged and not a single person has died. Officials were better prepared and were able to communicate with people quickly, said Professor Jeroen Aerts, head of the Water and Climate Risk department at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.”We better saw the wave coming, and where it was going,” Aerts told CNN. The Netherlands has a long history of water management and their success in the face of this disaster may offer the world a blueprint on how to handle floods, especially as climate change is expected to make extreme rain events more common. People build flood defenses using sandbags following heavy rains and floods in the Limburg province of the Netherlands.People build flood defenses using sandbags following heavy rains and floods in the Limburg province of the Netherlands.People build flood defenses using sandbags following heavy rains and floods in the Limburg province of the Netherlands.The country has been battling the sea and swollen rivers for nearly a millennium. Three large European rivers — the Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt — have their deltas in the Netherlands, and with much of its land below the sea level, the government says 60% of the country is at flood risk. Much of the country is essentially sinking. Its water management infrastructure is among the best in the world — involving giant walls with moveable arms the size of two football fields, coastal dunes that are reinforced with some 12 million cubic meters of sand per year, and simple things, like dikes and giving rivers more room to swell by lowering their beds — or floors — and expanding their banks. Its strength lies largely in its organization. The country’s infrastructure is managed by a branch of government devoted solely to water, the Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management, which looks after some 1,500 kilometers of man-made defenses.The country’s water problems are managed by a network of locally elected bodies whose sole function is to care for all things water, from flood to waste water, Aerts said. The first of these local “water boards” was established in the city of Leiden in 1255 — that’s how along ago the country realized it needed robust water management. “This is a unique situation that we have,” Aerts said. “Apart from the national government, the provinces, and cities, you have a fourth layer, the water boards, which are entirely focused on water management.”The eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier is part of the flood defense system in the Netherlands.The eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier is part of the flood defense system in the Netherlands.The eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier is part of the flood defense system in the Netherlands.The boards have the ability to levy taxes independently, so they are not subject to the ups and downs of the national coffers. “Water is involved in the tourism sector, it is involved in industry, in the building sector,” Aerts said. “And what you see is that in different countries is that the policies from governments are really sectoral.”In the Netherlands, he called water boards the “glue” that hold everything together, and can make sure, for example, that a proposal to build on a flood plain has all the relevant parties in communication.The water management agency’s website sums ups simply and clearly what it’s trying to do. “It’s raining more, the sea is rising, and rivers need to carry ever more water,” it reads. “Protecting against high water is and remains existential.”

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